Wednesday, 14 October 2015


Health education is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes
Health Education comprises consciously constructed opportunities for learning involving some form of communication designed to improve health literacy, including improving knowledge, and developing life skills which are conducive to individual and community health.
Health education is not only concerned with the communication of information, but also with fostering the motivation, skills and confidence (self-efficacy) necessary to take action to improve health.
Health education includes the communication of information concerning the underlying social, economic and environmental conditions impacting on health, as well as individual risk factors and risk behaviors, and use of the health care system. Thus, health education may involve the communication of information, and development of skills which demonstrates the political feasibility and organizational possibilities of various forms of action to address social, economic and environmental determinants of health.
Different  types of Health.
Social health, Physical health, Emotional health, Spiritual health, Environmental health, Mental health, Financial health
Physical fitness. A measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, resist hypokinetic diseases (diseases from sedentary lifestyles), and to meet emergency situations.”
Components of Physical Fitness
Health related physical fitness components are strength, cardiovascular endurance, Flexibility, speed, agility, Body fat (BMI), Power, Co ordination, muscular endurance etc:
Exercise may be defined as, “planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement performed to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness”   Adequate exercise will develop an efficient and effective cardio vascular system, a certain degree of muscular strength and endurance and flexibility. These components of health related physical fitness , with controlled body weight, nutritious food and reduced level of stress, helps to prevent disabilities and diseases and promotes an effective functional life style.
Aerobic exercises were named so by Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper, a physician at the San Antonio Air Force Hospital in Texas who prescribed this type of exercise for patients suffering from coronary artery disease. Initially, the exercise was practised by astronauts whose pulse rates and oxygen consumption were carefully monitored. Cooper published his book titled “Aerobics”, in the year 1968. It included results from various scientific exercise programmes which comprised of running, walking, swimming, and bicycling.
            Aerobic exercises also help in strengthening the muscles involved in respiration,  strengthening and enlarging the heart muscles to improve pumping efficiency, improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure, increasing the number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transportation of oxygen, improved mental health- including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression and reducing the risk of diabetics.
Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being or specifically the ability to perform aspects of sports or occupations. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, hygiene and rest.  Physical characteristics that constitute health-related physical fitness include strength and endurance of skeletal muscles, joint flexibility, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Fitness is a state of wellbeing that helps to perform daily activities with vigour, reduce risk of health problems related to lack of physical activity, and the ability to participate in a variety of physical activities. People can only fulfil their potential if they are healthy and fit.
Types of Exercises.
Aerobic  Exercises. Exercise requires energy. When we exercise aerobically our bodies use glycogen and fat as fuel. This low to moderate level of exertion can be sustained over long periods. As you breathe more heavily with exertion carbon dioxide is expelled from your body. Lactic acid is not produced as it is with anaerobic exercise.
Benefits of Aerobic Exercise
It is difficult to overstate the benefits of aerobic exercise. It not only improves overall health and quality of life, but may also extend your life. Aerobic exercise burns fat, improves mood, strengthens the heart and lungs and reduces your risk of diabetes.
Common types of aerobic exercise include running at a comfortable pace (you should be able to talk without breathing too hard), swimming, and cycling
 Anaerobic Exercises
Oxygen is not present with anaerobic exercise. When we exercise anaerobically glycogen is used as fuel. Once all the glycogen has been depleted (usually in about two hours) you can expect to hit the proverbial wall. Endurance athletes avoid this performance buster with carbo loading before exercise (which when converted to sugar gives more energy) and supplements during exercise to sustain energy.
During anaerobic exercise your body builds up lactic acid, which causes discomfort and fatigue at sustained levels. For this reason anaerobic exercise or high intensity exercise happens in short bursts. It may be helpful to consider the difference between a sprinter (anaerobic) and a marathoner (aerobic). Sprinting is an all-out effort that is sustained for a comparatively short period while marathoning is a sustained effort.
Benefits of Anaerobic Exercise
Anaerobic exercise helps build lean muscle mass. Calories are burned more efficiently in bodies that have more muscle. Anaerobic exercise is especially helpful for weight management in that it helps to burn more calories even in a body at rest. Anaerobic exercise can also help build endurance and fitness levels.
Types of Anaerobic Exercise
Anaerobic exercise is very high intensity or at your maximum level of exertion. Examples include sprinting and weight lifting.
Consider using intervals, aerobic with some bursts of anaerobic exercise mixed in periodically to improve weight loss and overall fitness.
Health benefits of Physical Exercises
Exercise controls weight
Exercise combats health conditions and diseases
Exercise improves mood
Exercise boosts energy
Exercise promotes better sleep
 Exercise can be fun
Exercise and physical activity are a great way to feel better, gain health benefits and have fun. As a general goal, aim for at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day. If you want to lose weight or meet specific fitness goals, you may need to exercise more. 
 Effect of exercise on Circulatory System 
The cardiac muscle surrounding the heart hypertrophies, resulting in thicker, stronger walls and therefore increases in heart volumes. The more blood pumped around the body per minute, the faster Oxygen is delivered to the working muscles. 
The number of red blood cells increases, improving the body’s ability to transport Oxygen to the muscles for aerobic energy production. 
The density of the capillary beds in the muscles and surrounding the heart and lungs increases as more branches develop. This allows more efficient gaseous exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. 
The resting heart rate decreases in trained individuals due to the more efficient circulatory system. 
The accumulation of lactic acid is much lower during high-levels activity, due to the circulatory system providing more Oxygen and removing waste products faster. 
Arterial walls become more elastic which allows greater tolerance of changes in blood pressure
Effect of exercise on Respiratory and Muscular System.
During rigorous physical activity, such as exercise, the body is subjected to a lot of stress. However, this stress During rigorous physical activity, such as exercise, the body is subjected to a lot of stress. However, this stress is beneficial, and can actually help the body remain healthy. Exercise pumps the heart and lungs into prompt action, which is necessary as these vital organs need to work harder to cope with the increased demand of oxygen in the body. It provides many benefits that help improve the pulmonary function as well. While some of these benefits are felt immediately, some take a while to appear.
Fitness is defined as a condition in which an individual has enough energy to avoid fatigue and enjoy life.
Physical fitness is divided into four health- and six skill-related components. Skill-related fitness enhances one’s performance in athletic or sports events. Health-related fitness is the ability to become and stay physically healthy.
Health Components and Skill Components
Cardiorespiratory fitness              Muscular strength and endurance
Flexibility                                           Body composition
Agility                                                   Balance                                            
 Power                                               Speed
Coordination                                      Reaction time
Health-related components focus on factors that promote optimum health and prevent the onset of disease and problems associated with inactivity.
Four Components of Health-Related Fitness
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart (cardio) and circulatory system (vascular) to supply oxygen to muscles for an extended period of time. Cardiovascular is also called cardiorespiratory (lungs) fitness. Usually the mile run or some other type of continuous fitness activity (12 minute run, cycling, step-test, etc.) is used to assess cardiovascular fitness.
Muscular strength and endurance is the muscle’s ability to produce effort or perform work.
            •          Muscular endurance refers to the ability of the muscle to work over an extended period of time without fatigue. Performing pushups and sit-ups or crunches for one minute is commonly used in fitness testing of muscular endurance.
            •          Muscular strength refers to the maximum amount of force a muscle can exert against an opposing force. Fitness testing usually consists of a one-time maximum lift using weights (bench press, leg press, etc.).
Components of Health-Related Fitness
Health & Skill Related Fitness—Activity
Flexibility is the ability to move a body part through a full range of motion at a joint (ROM).
The sit-and-reach is commonly used to determine flexibility.
Body composition is the ratio of body fat to lean body mass (including water, bone, muscle, and connective tissue). Having too much fat tissue is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis.
Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, on the basis of the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic, and muscle-strengthening activities.

Personal hygiene
 The human body can provide places for disease-causing germs and parasites to grow and multiply. These places include the skin and in and around the openings to the body. It is less likely that germs and parasites will get inside the body if people have good personal hygiene habits.
 Good personal hygiene
Good personal hygiene habits include:
·         washing the body often. If possible, everybody should have a shower or a bath every day. However, there may be times when this is not possible, for example, when people are out camping or there is a shortage of water
·         If this happens, a swim or a wash all over the body with a wet sponge or cloth will do
·         cleaning the teeth at least once a day. Brushing the teeth after each meal is the best way of making sure that gum disease and tooth decay are avoided. It is very important to clean teeth after breakfast and immediately before going to bed
·         washing the hair with soap or shampoo at least once a week
·         washing hands with soap after going to the toilet
·         washing hands with soap before preparing and/or eating food. During normal daily activities, such as working and playing, disease causing germs may get onto the hands and under the nails. If the germs are not washed off before preparing food or eating, they may get onto the food
·         changing into clean clothes. Dirty clothes should be washed with laundry soap before wearing them again
·         hanging clothes in the sun to dry. The sun's rays will kill some disease-causing germs and parasites
·         turning away from other people and covering the nose and mouth with a tissue or the hand when coughing or sneezing. If this is not done, droplets of liquid containing germs from the nose and mouth will be spread in the air and other people can breathe them in, or the droplets can get onto food

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