Monday, 14 September 2015

“Sports Reaches Areas far beyond the reach of politicians”
Nelson Mandela

Health and Physical Education

1st  Semester :
Physical Education
Recreation and recreational activities
Track and field or Altletic events.
Major and minor games.
Track and Field Marking

Physical Education is the education through physical activities for the development of total personality of the child and its fulfillment and perfection in body mind and spirit.
J. P Thomas
The aim of physical Education is to provide skilled leadership which will afford an opportunity for the individual or group to act situations which are physically whole some mentally stimulating and satisfying and socially sound.
The main objectives of Physical Education are
·         To help children learn to more skill fully and effectively in all active life situations.
·         To help the child in mental emotional development.
·         For the neuromuscular development.
·         To condition the heart, lungs, muscles and other organic systems to respond to increased demands.
Participation in Sports develops
a)      Good teacher
b)      Sense of discipline
c)       Loyalty
d)      Self-control
e)      Physical  fitness
f)       Mental alertness
g)      Nationalism
A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided.
Types of Tournaments
1.       Knock – out Tournament
2.       Heague Tournament
3.       Challenge Tournament
4.       Combination Tournenment

“Sports have the power to change the world. It has the power to inspire. It has the power to unite people in a way that little else does. It speaks to the youth in a language they understand”.
Nelson Mondela.
Intramural Competitions are competitions conducted within the players of same institutions.

Extramural Competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institution.

IMPORTANCE OF Intramural and Extramural

The students are provided with ample opportunities to develop their physical mantal emotional and social health through participation in activities. They are able to use theirlersure time wisely. They get good training for citizenship, adult living and human relationship.
The team which is defeated once will be eliminated and will not be get another chance to play. Total no: of matches is n-1 where n is the total no: of teams.

Knock-out-Fixture( for Eight team)
1. Keralavarma

 5. SB Chry
6. Nehru Kanghangad
7. Bishop Moore
8. Mar Ivanios

League Tournament
Irrespective of victory or lose each team has to play once with every other team. The total number of matchien in league tournament is n (n-1)/2

Fixture to 5 team
1-3  2-3
1-4  2-4  3-4
1-5  2-5  3-5  4-5

Challenge Tournament

There are two types of Challenge Tournament. a) Leader Tournament and b) Pyramid Tournament. There tournaments can be carried on for any specific period of time without any fixed schedule. Challenge tournaments help in selecting the best player in individual or dual games.

Combination Tournaments

This type of tournament in conducted when the number of teams is larger for a particular game. They are ?into different groups. Teams in the group play among them selves  and the winner or both winner and runner will play in the second phase. It can be knock-out League cum Knock-out or league cum League or Knock- out cum Knock-out

Officials for Track and Field.

1.       Track Refree
2.       Lane Umpires
3.       Time Keeres
4.       Starter
5.       Recall Starter
6.       Refree for Throws
7.       Refree for Jumps
8.       Judges for Throws
9.       Judges for Jumps
10.   Field Marshal

Standard Track

Length – 400mts
No. of Lanes – 8 lanes
Width of a Lane – 1.22mts
There are 44 events which can be divided in to track events and field events. These include running events, walking events, the throwing events and vaulting events. There are two multi events, the decathlon and heptathlon.

400mts TRACK

An athletic track consists of two straights and two curves. Curves are semi circular in shape. The two semi circlers are joined with two straights, one in each side. The total distance in these two straights and two curves is 400 meters.


Circumference of a circle is c = 2pr
p = 22/7 so r = radius of the circle.
Since there are 2 half circles, the circumference of each ½ circle is ½×2 p r.
Circumference of two half circles = 2 × ½ × 2pr = 2pr
ie= 2 × 22/7 × r

Track Calculation

Total length of a track (ie 2 curves + 2 straights) =             400 meters
2 curves               =             400 – 2 straights
(1 straight = 80mts)         =             400 – 160 meters
Total length of Curve      =             240mts
Curve radian      =             Total length of Curves/ 2p
240/2× 22/7 = 240 × 7/2 × 22        =             38.18mts
38.18mts is called the Running Distance Radius. Curve Distance Radius is actual marking line 30 inner to RDR. This is became an ?has to run without touching the inner line. So the CDR in 37.88mts.

Shot put
Measurements of shot-put Arena.
Diameter of out Circle    =             2.135
Radius   =             1.0675mts
Length of the outward extension             =             0.75mts each side
Angle of the Sector         =             34.92
Weight of Men Shot       =             7.26kg
Weight of Women Shot                =             4kg

Discus Throw

Diameter of the Circle    =             2.50mts
Radius of the Circle         =             1.25mts
Angle of the Sector         =             34.92
Weight of Men =             2kg
Weight of women           =             1 kg
Hammer Throw
Diameter of the Circle    =             2.135mts
Radius of the Circle         =             1.0675mts
Angle of Sector                 =             35
Weight (Men)   =             7.257kg
Weight of Hammer Women        =             4kg

Javelin Throw

Length of the Runway   =             30.00mts to 36.50mts. Runway should be between 2 parallel lineof 4mts in width.
Runway of runway are = 8mts from Runway
Angle of Javelin Sector =             28.95
Weight of Javelin Men   =             800 gm 
Weight of Javelin Women            =             600 gm

The Track Events

Sprints  -              100mts, 200mts, 400mts
Middle Distance -800mts, 1500mts
Long Distance    -3000mts steeplechase, 5000mts, 10000mts, Marathon (26.2miter)
Hurdles                -              100mts (w),  110mts(m), 400mts
Relays   -              4×100 mts, 4×400mts
Walks    -              20 km, 50 km

Field Event

Long Jump, Tripple Jump, Hugh Jump, Pole Vault
Throws Discuss Throw, Shot put, Javelin Throw, Hummer Throw


Recreation may be considered as “Any form of leisure time experience or activity in which an individual engages from choice because of the enjoyment and satisfaction which it brings directly to him. (G.D.Butler).
 Recreational education is aimed at “Teaching people to utilize their free time in a constructive manner”.
Recreation means to regain lost vigor and get a sense of joy, refreshment and satisfaction. Recreation is life itself. Without recreation life is meaningless. A man in order to survive has to do lot of physical and mental work, resulting in fatigue. Through recreation he can regain the lost vigor or energy. The objectives of recreations are personal fulfillment, Democratic Human Relations, skills and interests, Health and fitness, Creative expression and Aesthetic appreciation and Enviornment for living in a leisure society.

Minor Games

Minor Games are recreation games which do not have any specific rules and regulations. They are played for mental relaxation and to regain lost vigor and energy became of physical and mental work.

Major games are games which are having specific rulers and regulations. They are having international and national bodies which control the proceedings. Example of majour of games are football, Bonketball , Volleyball, Cricket, Hockey, Tennis, Shuttle badminton, Rugby etc.

Aerobic exercise in the most effective type of exercise. One can do walking (brisk – walking), slow running etc, continuosly for a period of 20 minutes or longer. Dangerous activities are not included in aerohic activity. Start exerusing slowly and with some fun or with friends. Gradually increase the quantity and time of exercise.
Proper warning up and cooling down exercise help prevent cramps and stiffness.
Physical Benefit of Exercise
·         Reduces risk of premature dealt.
·         Helps in reducing blood sugar, blood pressure, helps in maintaining proper body weight etc.
·         Prevents cardio vascular disease.
·         Increases muscle strength and muscle function.
·         Helps in maintaining muscles, bones, joint mobility.
·         Speeds up metabolism, Increases muscle function.
·          Increases our self – confidence
·         Providers distraction and reduces strem
·         Enhances mood
·         Given physical relation
·         Increases self esteem
·         Promotes  positive body image


Walking is the most common form of exercise. Research has found that
·         Walking on sand is almost twine costly as walking on have surface.
·         Walking on soft snow elevates metabolic cost three fold compared to similer walking on tread mill.
·         Brisk walking along beach provide an excellent stress in programmes designed to burn calories.
·         Oxygen cost of track running /walking is greater compared to stationary running / walking in a tread mill at the same fast speed.
·         The maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in to the body and utilized is Aerobic capacity. (mill liters/ kg of bodymass/ minute)
Walking fast or slow is wonderful exercise Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory study reveals that one should walk 30 minutes of moderate intensity, almost all days of the week. Moderate intensity means (in walking) one should cover 1.5 km in 15 to 16 minutes  if you are taking 6 minutes  or more to cover 400mts (in track) you are a slow walker. He or she should consider a doctor and check his health status.
(NewYorlc Times Dec. 4 2013)
In India about 63 million people suffer from diabetes, and  this figure is likely to go up to 80  million by 2025. (Diabetes Report Card 2012)

“It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of Gold or Silver”. Mahatma Gandhi.

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